Taking a Look Inside an E-bike ControllerMay 6, 2023
Today, we will examine the inside of your controller. Your controller is like an onboard computer that manages the motor, battery, and other electrical components of an electric bicycle and it is a critical component that controls the e-bike’s speed, power output, and performance. The controller typically includes a circuit board that manages voltage and amperage input and output through sensors and firmware. It regulates the flow of electricity from the battery to the motor, determines the motor’s power requirements and controls other functions such as pedal assist, cruise control, lights, LCD display, maximum speed, wheel size, minimum and maximum amperage, voltage cutoff and more. So let’s open one up and see what is inside…
Inside the controller is a circuit board that manages voltage and amperage input and output through sensors and firmware. It controls all critical functions of your e-bike.
The first thing the controller looks for is its power source, which comes from your battery. It determines your battery’s voltage and amperage, and it distributes that power to the controller’s various functions, such as the motor. The controller determines the power requirements for the motor, including the intervals for distributing that power.
It takes input from the throttle to determine how much power output is needed. When you twist the throttle, it changes the strength and polarity of the magnetic field next to the sensor, sending a corresponding voltage between 0.8 volts and 4.5 volts to the controller.
The controller also reads information from the brakes. When the brakes are applied, a sensor reduces the motor’s power output for a smoother stop. Additionally, the controller manages other functions, such as pedal assist, cruise control, lights, LCD, maximum speed, wheel size, minimum and maximum amperage, voltage cutoff, and more.
So how does an E-bike Controler Work?
An E-bike controller works by regulating the flow of electricity between the battery, motor, and other electrical components of the electric bicycle. Here is a general overview of how an e-bike controller works:
- Power source: The controller first looks for its power source, which comes from the e-bike’s battery. It determines the battery’s voltage and amperage and calculates how much power is available.
- Power distribution: The controller distributes the power to the various functions of the e-bike, such as the motor. It determines the motor’s power requirements, including the intervals for distributing power, based on the rider’s input through the throttle or pedal assist sensors.
- Input from the rider: When the rider twists the throttle or activates the pedal assist sensors, the controller receives input and determines how much power output is needed.
- Motor control: The controller then sends a signal to the motor, which controls its speed and power output. The controller ensures that the motor runs efficiently and doesn’t exceed its power limits, which could cause damage or unsafe conditions.
- Brake control: When the rider applies the brakes, the controller reads information from the brake sensors and reduces the motor’s power output to provide a smoother stop.
- Additional functions: The controller also manages other e-bike functions such as pedal assist, cruise control, lights, LCD display, maximum speed, wheel size, minimum and maximum amperage, voltage cutoff, and more.
Some controllers are built into the bike frame, while others are controlled by smartphones via apps, but mostly they are all controlled by the display on your handlebars. Some controllers are external and controlled by wired LCD inputs.
Regardless of the type of controller you have, its functions, give or take a few bells and whistles, control the most important functions of your e-bike. Overall, the e-bike controller plays a crucial role in the safe and efficient operation of any e-bike. Without it, the e-bike would not be able to function properly or deliver the performance and convenience that riders expect.